IMPROVING VOCABULARY MASTERY THROUGH
GROUP INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUE OF THE SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SD NO. 2 TIBUBENENG
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2010/2011
1.1 Background of the Study
Learning English as an international language is very important for many people in the world, in order to develop relationship with those who come from different national language. If we can communicate with each other through reading news papers, magazines or anything else, we will know the customs, culture and
development other countries.
development other countries.
English is used internationally as a means of communication. People compete strongly throughout the world to survive, due to the rapid development of science and technology, the mastery of the English language is compulsory. English is used as telecommunication tools. Therefore, it makes the mastery of English very crucial. Language exists to complete communication, namely to convey idea, or any opinion or any message from someone else, from the speaker to the reader or listener. So, the function of the language is as a communication, both oral and written.
Based on the elementary school curriculum, the learning of English involves the mastery of four skills namely, listening, speaking, writing and reading. Moreover the other aspects of language are concurrently taught to develop the four language skills above such as, grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and spelling. The above basic skills can not be successfully learned or mastered then the language components are not well mastered or vice versa. As, a result, learners will not be able to communicate well in English. Vocabulary is crucial in language learning since the ability to communicate is primary supported by the vocabulary mastery of that language. In relation to this Rachmadie (1985) states that in order to be able to communicate, knowing the rule of grammar, structure, phonology of language, it will be useless without the mastery of vocabulary.
Vocabulary is the sum of words of any language used in books or texts. In order to understand texts or books the vocabulary as one element of the text shall be mastered well. To master vocabulary, the words shall be learned item by its definiton.
Moreover, Mc Neil in Murga (2006:3) writes that to read well, he/she needs a strong vocabulary. To build strong vocabulary, he/she needs to read well. In order to read confidently, he/she has to know many words and he/she has to know how to figure out the meanings of new words that he/she discovers as he/she reads. Yet the best way to expand his/her knowledge of words is to read often in varied content areas.
In accordance with the face above, it is found that the elementary school students faced problems in learning vocabulary. Most of them can not recognize and produce the meaning of the words that has already been taught by the teacher, as the case with the sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng.
Furthermore, Palmberg (1990:18) asserts that the unsuccessful teaching of vocabulary can also be caused by the teaching learning condition and teaching learning style. This suggests that the English teachers shall be creative and innovative in teaching and practicing different vocabulary teaching technique, one of the vocabulary activities which is considered more effective is Group Investigation Technique.
Group Investigation as a cooperative learning method to integrate interaction and communication in the classroom with the process of academic inquiry. In this method, groups take on topics within a unit syudied by the entire class. The groups break these topics into tasks within the group and carry out the activities necessary to prepare group reports, which are presents to the class as a whole. In addition, the resercher believes that Group Investigation Technique can improve the student’ achievement in English vocabulary at sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng.
1.2 Statement of Research Question
Based on the explanation above, the problem of the study can be stated as follows : “To what extent is the effectiveness of Group Investigation Technique in improving students’ vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng?”
1.3 Objective of the Study
The basic of the problem states above, the study is developed with the fundamental purpose of improving vocabulary mastery of the sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng. Besides, this study is also intendeed to find out the effectiveness of Group Investigation Technique especially for improving students vocabulary in the school cencerned.
1.4 Limitation of The Study
On account of this fact, challenges will be related to vocabulary mastery faced by the subjects of this study are definitely too broad and complex to be dealt with in a single study. Accordingly, in the present class action study the researcher, while acknowledging that there are many other useful stategies, limits this investigation to the improving students vocabulary through Group Investigation Technique of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng. The material and source are taken from the same book as in the class of the sixht grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng.
1.5 Significance of The Study
The results of the present study are expected to bear the following importance.
a. Theoretically, the findings of the present study are expected to contribute substantial support to the existing research findings which have revealed, that learning vocabulary is significant to the achievement of the student in mastering the four language skills which are supposed to be relatively difficult, and should be learned and mastered by the sixht grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng.
b. Practically, the findings of the present study are meant to provide educational feedback to the English teachers and the sixht grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng. For the English teachers the findings of this study can be used as reflections concerning their success and failure in teaching vocabulary, they can use the established findings as bases to devise and plan beter, more effective and efficient vocabulary instructions. For the students they serve as reference and record of the oral presentation and enable to reconstitute the material later alone.
c. The findings of the present study are also further intended to shed light on the implementation of communicative approach, the students must master the vocabulary. Vocabulary mastery is a very important component in mastering English.
For the purpose of underlying the present study, some assumptions are :
· The instrument is used for collecting data are considered to be valid and reliable.
· The populations of the study are the sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng which are assumed to be capable of acquiring vocabulary through Group Investigation Technique.
· It is assumed that the population has already mastered vocabulary.
· All subjects under investigation are assumed to have learnt English for the same period of time.
· The subjects under study are assumed to have the same level.
On attempting to give a tentative solution to the problem, the hypothesis will be stated as the following: the students ‘vocabulary mastery can be improved through Group Investigation Technique.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misunderstanding about the present study and provide clear sight about what this study is about, some key terms are explained operationally as follows:
Vocabulary is a list of words used in a book, usually with definition or translation (Hornby 1987:959). Vocabulary is a list of words arranged on alphabetical order and briefly explained the associate meaning with particular combination of letters that from a word or group of word and used by person, class or proffesion, either in speaking and writing using those words or phrases.
1.8.2 Group Investigation Technique
Group Investigation Technique is a learning method which involves the activities of deciding topic and teams, planning action, final report preparation, and assessment during teaching and learning process (Tsoi et al, 2008). It is a cooperative learning method to integrate interaction and communication in the classroom with the process of academic inquiry.
1.8.3 Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng
One of the state elementary school which is located in Tibubeneng Village, Kuta Utara, Badung Regency.
1.9 Theoretical Framework
This present study is based on the following theoretical framework : (1) Conception of vocabulary, (2) Conception of teaching vocabulary, (3) Conception of the importace of vocabulary, (4) Classification of vocabulary, (5) Technique in improving vocabulary, (6) Assesment of vocabulary.
1.10 Research Method
1.10.1 Subject of the Study
The subjects of this research are the sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng. In the Academic Year of 2010/2011. These students are 35 of all together, which specifically consist of 17 females and 18 males. They were selected on the basis of the preliminary observation, which shows that students have low achievement in recognizing and producing word meaning.
1.10.2 Research Design
The type of investigation uses in this research is Classroom Action Research. Action research is a cyclic process of planning action, observation and reflection (Kemmis and Taggart, 1988 : 35). This study is intended to know the effectiveness of Group Investigation Technique in improving students vocabulary of the sixth grade students of Sekolah Dasar No. 2 Tibubeneng. This classroom action study is concerned with improving students vocabulary skill consist of : initial reflection or pre-test, questionnaire, and reflection or post test. In this classroom action study the teaching and learning process were divided into two cycles, in which each cycle consist of four session, each session of four interconnected activities namely. Planning (P), Action (A), Observation (O) and Reflection (R). The designed of the present class action can be formulated as in the following :
1.10.3 Research instrument
There are a number of research instruments that used in collecting the data, such as follows:
1. Teaching Scenario
The teacher’s scenario is prepared in order to have a clear description of what to be done in the classroom. It is a guideline for the teacher in conducting every step of the teching plan.
Based on its function, the test can be divided into two types, namely : Pre test and Post test. A pre-test is developed in order to know the problem in detail and to examine students’ achievement in vocabulary mastery before the treatment is given. In consists of ten items, the students should match the word in the boxes with the picture. Post test I is administered to know students’ mastery after the action. Post test II will be continue if the improvement still not significant yet.
The questionnaire are given to the students in order to get the subjects’ response toward learning English, especially in English Vocabulary through group Investigation Technique. It will be distributed at the end of the second cycle. This is simple one which consists of ten items.
1.10.4 Data Collection
The intended data in this study are collected by using Intial Reflection (pre-test), Reflection (post-test), and questionnaire. Firstly before the teaching is carried out the students are given pre test. This is conducted in order to find the initial reflection as well as to see the problem they faced. They are tested individually and suggests to answer ten questions. There are two kinds of data : quantitative and qualitative data. The students’ score that can be collected by the students in post-test 1 – post-test 2 shows quantitative data. The qualitative data is obtained from the questionnaire.
1.10.5 Data Analysis
The obtained data is analyzed by descriptive quantitative and descriptive qualitative techniques in order to find out the result of the study. The quantitative data is obtained from the result of the pre-test and the two post-tests. Whereas the qualitative data is obtained from the result of the questionnaire.
Both data are analyzed descriptively in which the mean score of the pre-test is compared to the mean score of the post-test 1 and 2 to know how far the effectiveness of the treatment given in improving the students’ vocabulary achievement.
The following formula is used to analyze the obtained data adopted from the criteria proposed by Masidjo (1995) :
1. The score obtained by each student / subject (X)
2. The student’s level of Mastery
3. The student’s mean score (M)
As an addition, if the mean score were > 75, the cycle will be stoped.
For determining the level of students’ mastery, particularly, the Criterion Referenced Type I is used in which the minimum competence that is considered as a passing score is 65% from the whole materials and that falls into sufficient category.
The criteria of the level of the student’s mastery can be seen in the following table.
Table 3.1 The Level of The Student’s Mastery
Level of Mastery
90% - 100%
80% - 89%
65% - 79%
55% - 64%
Less than 55%
The above table can be explained as follows :
Excellent : the students’ level who are able to master 90 – 100% of the whole material.
Good : the students’ level who are able to master 80 – 89% of the whole material.
Sufficient : the students’ level who are able to mater 65 – 79% of the whole material.
Insufficient : the students’ level who are able to master 55 – 64% of the whole material.
Sufficient : the students’ level who are able to mater less than 55% of the whole material.
4. The data resulted from the questionnaire :
Bonita Aryvadevi, Desak Putu, 2009. Implementation of Group Investigation To Improve The Students’ achievement in the Seventh Grade Students of SMPN 1 Banjar in Writing Descriptive Paragraph in the Academic Year 2008/2009. Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Negeri Singaraja.
Hornby, A.S. 1987. Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary of Current English. London: Oxford University Press.
Palmberg, R. 1990. Improving Foreign Language Learner’s Vocabulary Skills. RELC Journal. Vo. 21 (1) : 1-9